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首页 > 海洋书城 > 海洋社科类 > 海洋科普

海啸百问

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3304

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作者:于福江 组织编写 ; 原野 侯京明 编著

出版日期:2022-12-23

ISBN:978-7-5210-1041-1

装帧:平装

页数:112

版次:B1

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内容简介

海啸灾害是世界上最严重的海洋灾害之一。我国周边沿海处于环太平洋地震带上,既面临着局地海啸的威胁,也受区域和越洋海啸的影响。海啸减灾宣传是防范海啸灾害的重要手段。本书分为六个章节,包括“海啸常识”,“地震海啸源”,“海啸监测”,“海啸预警”,“海啸预警技术研究”和“海啸减灾”。内容涵盖了海啸知识、海啸预警和海啸减灾等方面。通过一问一答的形式,向读者全面介绍海啸灾害的各个方面,增强民众海啸防灾减灾意识,达到海啸科普的目的。

目录

1 海啸常识

什么是海啸·············································································2

海啸是怎么产生的····································································3

海啸是怎么分类的····································································4

海啸经常发生吗·······································································5

海啸如何传播··········································································5

海啸有多大·············································································7

海啸会造成什么样的灾害 ··························································8

历史上有哪些大海啸事件 ··························································9

所有大型海底地震都会产生海啸吗 ············································13

海啸的持续时间有多长 ···························································13

海啸到达时间能够准确预测吗 ··················································14

海啸与一般海浪有何不同 ························································15

海啸能够预报吗·····································································16

所有大洋都有海啸发生吗 ························································17

全球海啸是如何分布的 ···························································18

2 地震海啸源

地球内部是如何分层的 ···························································20

板块是如何运动的··································································21

目 录

目 录 1

地震成因是什么·····································································22

全球地震带有哪些··································································23

地震基本参数有哪些·······························································24

断层有哪些分类·····································································25

什么类型的地震能够引发海啸 ··················································26

地震震级标度有哪些·······························································27

地震矩是如何定义的·······························································29

震源机制解···········································································30

地震波动有哪些·····································································31

地震体波··············································································32

地震面波··············································································33

地震的主要监测手段有哪些 ·····················································34

地震台站的作用是什么 ···························································34

3 海啸监测

(一)海啸监测参数 ······························································36

海啸怎么监测········································································36

平均海平面如何定义·······························································37

什么是海啸波周期··································································38

什么是海啸波速·····································································39

什么是海啸波长·····································································39

什么是海啸波幅·····································································40

什么是海啸波峰、波谷 ···························································41

什么是海啸传播时间·······························································41

2 海啸百问

(二)海啸现象及监测手段 ····················································42

浮标如何监测海啸··································································42

海底观测网···········································································43

什么是沿海水位站··································································44

什么是全球海平面观测系统(GLOSS) ·······································45

地磁异常如何监测海啸 ···························································46

什么是海啸爬高·····································································46

什么是海啸共振·····································································47

什么是海啸频散·····································································47

什么是海啸涌波·····································································48

(三)我国海啸监测能力 ·······················································49

我国海底地震是如何监测的 ·····················································49

我国是如何监测海啸的 ···························································51

数据共享在海啸预警中的作用 ··················································52

4 海啸预警

(一)海啸预警系统 ······························································54

什么是海啸预警系统·······························································54

海啸预警产品的分类·······························································54

什么是海啸警报·····································································55

海啸警报样例········································································56

什么是海啸信息·····································································57

海啸预警流程是什么·······························································57

目 录 3

海啸预警信息的发布速度有多快 ···············································59

海啸发布手段有哪些·······························································60

(二)全球海啸预警 ······························································61

全球及区域海啸预警系统 ························································61

太平洋海啸预警系统·······························································61

国家级海啸预警中心·······························································62

海啸预警中,政府间协调组(ICG)的作用是什么 ························62

ITIC组织在海啸预警中的作用 ··················································63

UNESCO/IOC在全球海啸预警中的作用是什么 ·····························63

(三)我国海啸预警 ······························································64

我国海啸预警中心的发展历史 ··················································64

海啸预警决策系统··································································65

南中国海区域海啸预警中心建设 ···············································66

海啸信息获取途径有哪些 ························································67

5 海啸研究

(一)海啸数值计算 ······························································70

海啸预警研究技术有哪些 ························································70

海啸波计算的理论基础是什么 ··················································70

海啸数值计算是如何进行的 ·····················································71

数值计算中海啸是如何生成的 ··················································72

海啸数值计算的三种常用方程是什么 ·········································73

网格嵌套是什么意思·······························································75

4 海啸百问

海啸数值计算的时效性如何保证 ···············································75

传播时间(TTT)····································································76

(二)其他海啸预警技术 ·······················································77

海啸预警情景数据库技术 ························································77

海啸单位源数据库··································································78

海啸浮标反演方法··································································79

6 海啸减灾

(一)海啸减灾宣传 ······························································82

世界海啸日···········································································82

海啸灾害公报········································································83

海啸演习的作用是什么 ···························································84

海啸到来前,自然的警告有哪些 ···············································85

如果收到海啸警报,该怎么办 ··················································86

如果需要撤离,该随身带上什么东西 ·········································87

如果发生远距离海啸,该怎么办 ···············································88

如果发生局地海啸,该怎么办 ··················································88

海啸发生期间,如果正在船上,该怎么办 ···································89

(二)海啸风险评估及疏散 ····················································90

什么是海啸风险评估·······························································90

什么是海啸危险评估·······························································91

我国沿海的海啸风险等级是怎么分布的 ······································92

什么是海啸脆弱性··································································93

目 录 5

海啸危险与风险之间的关系 ·····················································94

概率性海啸危险评估·······························································94

海啸淹没是如何计算的 ···························································95

什么是海啸疏散预案·······························································96

避灾点是如何定义的·······························································97

海啸致灾作用力有哪些 ···························································97

疏散图是如何制作的·······························································98

避灾点选取原则有哪些 ···························································99

水平疏散是什么····································································100

立体疏散是什么····································································100

海啸灾后调查是如何开展的 ····················································101

参考资料 ·········································································102


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